EPI-743 (vatiquinone) is a compound being developed by BioElectron (previously known as Edison Pharmaceuticals) to treat Friedreich’s ataxia (FA), a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorder. The disorder is caused by mutations in the FXN gene, which encodes for a protein called frataxin. Frataxin is required for the normal functioning of mitochondria, or the energy factories of the cells. Decreased levels of frataxin, as observed in patients with FA, disrupts the normal function of mitochondria and leads to the gradual development of symptoms associated with the disease: impairment of muscle coordination, loss of muscle strength and sensation, and impaired speech, vision, and hearing.
Currently, there are no drugs available that could cure or help to effectively manage the condition, although a large number of potential treatments are in the pipeline.
How EPI-743 works
EPI-743 is a drug belonging to the class of para-benzoquinones, a group of potent antioxidants. The regulation of oxidative stress is disturbed in people with FA. EPI-743 targets an enzyme called NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), helping to increase the biosynthesis of glutathione, a compound essential for the control of oxidative stress. The drug does not target any FA-specific biochemical pathways directly, but helps to improve the regulation of cellular energy metabolism in general. Due to its non-specific mechanism, the drug can be used in a variety of disorders where mitochondrial function is affected.
EPI-743 in clinical trials
In December 2012, Edison Pharmaceuticals started a placebo-controlled Phase 2 study (NCT01728064) to examine the safety and efficacy of EPI-743 on visual and neurological function in FA patients. The study was completed in February 2016. The results indicated no significant differences in visual function at six months between patients treated with EPI-743 and those who received a placebo. However, researchers reported a trend toward improvement in neurological function.
In October 2013, the University of South Florida started a small Phase 2 study (NCT01962363) to evaluate the effects of EPI-743 in patients with rare point mutations leading to FA. The study investigated whether treatment with EPI-743 has a discernible impact on neurological function. The results announced in April 2016 demonstrated significant improvements in neurological functions over 18 months. However, the trial only included three participants.
Currently, no further trials testing EPI-743 in FA patients is taking place. However, the drug is in clinical trials for several other disorders that affect the functions of mitochondria, including Leigh syndrome, mitochondrial respiratory chain disease, Pearson syndrome, and others.
In February 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted orphan drug status to EPI-743, which allows a more expedited drug approval process. The FDA also granted fast track status to EPI-743 for the treatment of FA in March 2014.
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